The rates of several device-independent (DI) protocols, including quantum key-distribution (QKD) and randomness expansion (RE), can be computed via an optimization of the conditional von Neumann entropy over a particular class of quantum states. In this work we introduce a numerical method to compute lower bounds on such rates. We derive a sequence of optimization problems that converge to the conditional von Neumann entropy of systems defined on general separable Hilbert spaces. Using the Navascués-Pironio-Acín hierarchy we can then relax these problems to semidefinite programs, giving a computationally tractable method to compute lower bounds on the rates of DI protocols. Applying our method to compute the rates of DI-RE and DI-QKD protocols we find substantial improvements over all previous numerical techniques, demonstrating significantly higher rates for both DI-RE and DI-QKD. In particular, for DI-QKD we show a new minimal detection efficiency threshold which is within the realm of current capabilities. Moreover, we demonstrate that our method is capable of converging rapidly by recovering instances of known tight analytical bounds. Finally, we note that our method is compatible with the entropy accumulation theorem and can thus be used to compute rates of finite round protocols and subsequently prove their security.
Based on joint work with Peter Brown and Hamza Fawzi.